Subcutaneous injections are administered in the fat layer, underneath the skin.
Subcutaneous injection is administered on to fatty tissues under the skin. the fatty layer is situated immediately beneath the skin and contains few blood vessels. the subcutaneous shot is shallower compared to injections on muscle tissues. Subcutaneous injection is suitable for administering medications that are slowly absorbed in the bloodstream. Examples of such medication is insulin, some fertility drugs, and blood thinners.Subcutaneous injection is safe and requires little force as compared to intramuscular injections. The few blood vessels on this fat layer make it ideal for drugs that need to be absorbed and used slowly in the body. Mostly, the drugs that are to be administered daily are designed suitably for subcutaneous injection since it’s simple.
How to perform subcutaneous injection:
- Choose areas such as thigh, top of buttocks, back of the arm or the abdomen. These areas are known to be fatty. When you are doing the injections severally, it’s important to rotate the injection areas to for complete healing. Don’t inject one area frequently.
• Ensure your hands are clean, and clean the injection area too. Use alcohol pad to clean. After clean, allow the area to dry.
• Use the needle to draw medicine into the syringe. Usually, you turn the vial upside down and pull the plunger to suck the drug. Ensure the syringe is free of bubbles by tapping it.
• Pitch a 2-inch thick skin of the fatty area within your thumb and a finger.
• Slide the needle at 90 degrees into the skin.
• Push the plunger quickly.
• Remove and safely dispose of the needle.
Intramuscular injections are delivered into the muscle:
Intramuscular injection is an injection method used to deposit drugs deep down the muscle tissue. The method is suitable for administering large quantities of medication that need to be absorbed quickly in the blood. Drugs administered using intramuscular injection are irritating drugs that are painful to administer on subcutaneous tissue. The muscle tissue has less pain sensing nerves making it less painful. Examples of drugs administered using intramuscular injection include antibiotics, vaccinations and hormones.
The method is recommended on patients that are uncooperative or they are not in a position to take oral drugs. Before administering any drug through this method, the nurse assesses the patient to establish if it’s the best method to use on the patient.
Body areas on which IM can be done include shoulder muscle, thigh muscles, muscles on the hip. It is important to avoid injecting at the dorsogluteal hip muscle since one can accidently hit a blood vessel or a borne.
Steps of intramuscular injection:
- Assess the medical history and the current condition of the patient for administration of an intramuscular injection. You can discuss with the patient to obtain this information.
• Ask the patient about the part of the body he would prefer to have the injection.
• Choose the site that is most suitable for the injection depending on the type of the drug.
• Ensure you have done the injection rightly.
• Prepare the medication following the recommended procedures and medical instructions.
• When ready, use alcohol pads to clean the injection area and allow it to dry.
• Inject the selected and cleaned area.
• After the injection removes the needle and disposes of it safely.
• Use adhesive bandage or cotton balls on the injected area to manage the blood oozing.
An intradermal injection is a method of administering drugs using the Monteux technique in the dermis area. Dermis area is located under the upper skin layer. Monteux method is complex making it unpopular. It requires a lot of experience. Despite its unpopularity, intradermal injection has many advantages over other injection methods.
The intradermal injection can alternatively be done using intradermal microinjection. Intradermal microinjection entails the use of smaller needles. The smaller needles can easily reach the dermis layer when slided at 90 degrees.
Intradermic microinjection can be administered by anyone. The method is less painful and it’s safe.
The method is suitable for administering anaesthetics.
Each of the above discussed injection method has both advantages and disadvantages. Each injection method is suitable for administering a particular medication and not another. Several factors determine the choice of the most suitable injection method to use. It’s important to first study the patient and the type of drug needed.
you will easily choose which injection method to use.
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